For specific reasons (i.e. internal security policies), you need to disable SQL Browser service on your SQL Server, which hosts SCSP instance/database. However, you noticed SCSP Server cannot work anymore as soon as Browser service is stopped.
The behavior is the same in all scenario: - local or remote database - static or dynamic port - default or customized port
[ERROR] [StartupServlet:1] Server initialization has failed!!
java.lang.Exception: Failed to connect to database after trying 20 times, please start the database!!
If you disable Browser service, all SCSP Server attempts to know what is the port to use will fail, and result into connection failure, even if SQL Server is using default port and is installed locally.
This connection to 1434 is due to default URL used by SCSP Server, stored into %CSPSERVER%\Tomcat\conf\server.xml. By default, URL used looks like the following: